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The pixel-value differencing (PVD) [1] scheme provides high imperceptibility to the stego image by selecting two consecutive pixels and. D.-C. Wu and W.-H. Tsai, “A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 24, no. , pp. a stego-image imperceptible to human vision, a novel steganographic approach based on pixel-value differencing is used. In this paper various methods of PVD.

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If is small, then the block is located within the smooth area and will embed less secret data. Computeand transform into the binary stream.

The quantization range table is designed with contiguous ranges, and the range table ranges from 0 to By the definition of subranges, if the to-be-embedded secret bits equal one of the LSB bits in the first subrange, then we claim it can embed secret bits. Calculate the new difference.

Repeat until all secret data is completely extracted. Second, tseganographic notice almost the difference values belonging to range are used to embed the same size of data, 4 bits of secret data. We also use the same test images as the real test shown in Figure 4and the experiment results are shown in Table 5. Skip to search form Skip to main content. From each block, we can obtain a difference value ; then ranges from 0 to The width of this range is differrencing, and the embedding bit length is.


Finally, we modify 47,81 to 48, This work designs a new quantization range pixel-vakue based on the perfect square number to decide the payload by the difference value between the consecutive pixels. Repeat Steps 1 — 5 until all secret bits are embedded and the stego image is produced.

Pixel Value Differencing a Steganographic method : A Survey – Semantic Scholar

The grayscale cover image pixel valuewhere is a pixel index. In the extracting phase, the pixel-vaule Steps 1 and 2 in the embedding algorithm are used. View at Google Scholar C. Suppose, the probability of distribution is uniform.

Steganography Pixel Autoregressive integrated moving average. Other criteria include embedding capacity and invisibility to human eyes.

The embedding procedure of proposed method is summarized as follows. The gray-valued cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels, states and. The new pixel values and are obtained by the following formula: Obtain the range in whichwhere and are the lower bound and the fifferencing bound ofand is the number of embedding bits.

There are very few studies focusing on the range table design. View at Google Scholar.

Journal of Applied Mathematics

The number of secret bits hidden in two consecutive pixels depends on the quantization range table. First, if the difference value is located in the first subrange, there is no modification needed, so this design does not violate the basic concept of PVD and HVS Human Visual System. Otherwise, it is located on the edge area, and it can embed a greater amount of secret data.


Few studies focus on the range table design. The second was based on selecting the range widths of [2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 8, 8, 16, 16, 32, 32, 64, 64], to provide high imperceptibility. First, we give a theoretical analysis to show our method is well defined, and then the experiment results show the proposed scheme has higher imperceptibility.

For example, we choose a pair of two consecutive pixels 48,80 from the stego image; then. Besides, it is intuitive to design it by using the width of the power of two. Section 4 offers a theoretical analysis and shows the experiment results.

The embedding algorithm is described as follows. For another example, we choose a pair of two consecutive pixels 43,84 pixeo-value the stego image; then .